Sanesco Blog

Inflammation and the Microbiome: When the Gut Barrier Fails

Share

Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Sanesco, as well as the scientific community at large, has been very excited about the growing body of research on the gut microbiota. These are microorganisms that reside within the human body and can have significant effects on our health and well-being. One of the important tasks our gut microbiota performs is maintaining the integrity of the gut barrier, and thus, regulating inflammation.

The gut barrier prevents harmful bacteria or other pathogens from entering the blood stream, while also allowing nutrients to be absorbed from food.[1] The gut barrier consists of a layer of epithelial cells and a layer of mucus.[2] In between individual epithelial cells are protein complexes called tight-junctions.[3],[4] Tight-junctions regulate the flow of water and molecules between the gut and the bloodstream.[5]

Dysbiosis

Dysbiosis occurs when there are an increased number of bad bacteria or a decreased number of good bacteria in the digestive system. A state of dysbiosis is one factor that can lead to damaged tight-junctions and increased gut permeability, also known as leaky gut.[6],[7],[8] Other causes of leaky gut include NSAID medications (ibuprofen, Advil,® etc.) and ingestion of foods the body is allergic to. When tight-junctions between epithelial cells don’t work properly, harmful molecules from the gut can slip through the gut barrier and enter the blood stream.

One of these harmful molecules is lipopolysaccharide or LPS. LPS is part of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria.[9] These molecules come from bacteria within the gut and cause a strong inflammatory response in the body.[10],[11] Dysbiosis and the resulting inflammation caused by leaky gut can contribute to many issues, from IBS and ulcerative colitis to obesity and depression.[12],[13]

Controlling Inflammation with Probiotics

It is our body’s good fortune that probiotics (the friendly kind of bacteria and other microogranisms) can help reduce inflammation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a type of yeast known to have benefits for humans.[14] S. cerevisiae has been shown to inhibit the effects of bacterial toxins, such as LPS.[15] S. cerevisiae also controls inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine proteins.[16] Bacillus coagulans is another probiotic that reduces pro-inflammatory mediators, and thus inflammation.[17] Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium help prevent against leaky gut by increasing the integrity of tight-junctions.[18],[19] Additionally, by exercising, consuming fermented foods and avoiding a Western-style diet (high saturated fat, high sugar, low fiber) you can help prevent dysbiosis and control  inflammation.[20],[21],[22]

A healthy lifestyle and the right probiotics can keep your gut microbiome healthy and keep inflammation under control!

[1]Bischoff SC, Barbara G, Buurman W, et. al. (2014). Intestinal permeability – a new target for disease prevention and therapy. BMC Gastroenterology, 14:189
[2] Ibid.
[3] Ibid.
[4] Ling X, Linglong P, Weixia D, et. al. (2016). Protective Effects of Bifidobacterium on Intestinal Barrier Function in LPS-Induced Enterocyte Barrier Injury of Caco-2 Monolayers and in a Rat NEC Model. PLoS ONE 11(8): e0161635.
[5] Bischoff et. al. op. cit.
[6] Bischoff et. al. op. cit.
[7] Ling et. al. op. cit.
[8] Campbell SC, Wisniewski PJ, Noji M, et. al.  (2016). The Effect of Diet and Exercise on Intestinal Integrity and Microbial Diversity in Mice. PLoS ONE 11(3): e0150502.
[9] Ling et. al. op. cit.
[10] Ling et. al. op. cit.
[11] Kiefer D & Ali-Akbarian L. (2004). A brief evidence-based review of two gastrointestinal illnesses: irritable bowel and leaky gut syndromes. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine; 10, 3.
[12] Campbell et. al. op. cit.
[13] Jørgensen BP, Hansen JT, Krych L, et. al. (2014). A Possible Link between Food and Mood: Dietary Impact on Gut Microbiota and Behavior in BALB/c Mice. PLoS ONE 9(8): e103398.
[14] Palma ML, Zamith-Miranda D, Martins FS, et. al. (2015) Probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as biotherapeutic tools: is there room for improvement? Appl Microbiol Biotechnol; 99:6563–6570
[15] Ibid.
[16] Ibid.
[17] Sudha MR & Arunasree KM. (2015). ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF BACILLUS COAGULANS UNIQUE IS2. International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 31-36
[18] Bischoff et. al. op. cit.
[19] Ling et. al. op. cit.
[20] Campbell et. al. op. cit.
[21] Jørgensen et. al. op. cit.
[22] Bischoff et. al. op. cit.

Disclaimer: The information provided is only intended to be general educational information to the public. It does not constitute medical advice. If you have specific questions about any medical matter or if you are suffering from any medical condition, you should consult your doctor or other professional healthcare provider.

Clinical Contributor

[starbox id=”mbraine”]

Ramona Richard, MS, NC

Ramona Richard, MS, NC

Ramona Richard graduated with honors from the University of California with a Bachelor’s Degree in psychology and graduated summa cum laude with a Master’s Degree in Health and Nutrition Education. She also holds a Standard Designated Teaching Credential from the State of California, is a California state-certified Nutrition Consultant and a member of the National Association of Nutrition Professionals.

Ramona has participated in nutrition education in both public and private venues, including high school and college presentations, radio and public speaking for the past 20 years. She is the owner of Radiance, a nutrition consulting company, the Director of Education for Sanesco International, and a medical technical writer.

Disclaimer: The information provided is only intended to be general educational information to the public. It does not constitute medical advice. If you have specific questions about any medical matter or if you are suffering from any medical condition, you should consult your doctor or other professional healthcare provider.

Clinician Resources

Download a Sample Report

Stay up to date with sanesco

Other Related Blogs

Follow Us

Get Connected

Get Setup and start today

Sign Up for Our Newsletter

NeuroLab® and Sanesco Sample Patient Report

Receive a sample report of our most comprehensive profile, the HPA-G Complete which includes seven major neurotransmitters, seven major hormones and three neuroendocrine ratios.
NeuroLab CARE package
Overview

One of our feel-good neurotransmitters; when it is deficient, we can suffer mood disorders, sleep issues and carb cravings.